Over 2,000 fewer farmers every day
The mistaken notion that the 53 per cent of India's population 'dependent on
agriculture' are all 'farmers' leads many to dismiss the massive farmers'
suicides as trivial.
There are nearly 15 million farmers ('Main' cultivators) fewer than there
were in 1991. Over 7.7 million less since 2001, as the latest Census data
show. On average, that's about 2,035 farmers losing 'Main Cultivator' status
every single day for the last 20 years. And in a time of jobless growth,
they've had few places to go beyond the lowest, menial ends of the service
A December 2012 report of the Institute of Applied Manpower Research (IAMR)
— a part of the Planning Commission — puts it this way: "employment in total
and in non-agricultural sectors has not been growing. This jobless growth in
recent years has been accompanied by growth in casualization and
informalization." It speaks of an "an absolute shift in workers from
agriculture of 15 million to services and industry." But many within the
sector also likely moved from farmer to agricultural labourer status.
Swelling the agrarian underclass.
So how many farmers do we have?
Census 2011 tells us we now have 95.8 million cultivators for whom farming
is their main occupation. That's less than 8 per cent of the population.
(Down from 103 million in 2001 and 110 million in 1991). Include all
marginal cultivators (22.8 million) and that is still less than 10 per cent
of the population.
Even if you count together all cultivators and agricultural labourers, the
number would be around 263 million or 22 per cent of the population.
(Interestingly, this reduced figure comes after a few big states have
actually reported a rise in the total number of cultivators. Since 85 per
cent of all marginal workers reported more than a 100 days work, this could
possibly reflect the reverse pull of MNREGA, among other factors).
Between 1981 and 1991, the number of cultivators (main workers), actually
went up from 92 million to 110 million. So the huge decline comes post-1991.
Hold on: aren't 53 per cent of the population farmers?
No. That's a common fallacy. The over 600 million Indians dependent on
agriculture are not all farmers. They are deployed in an array of related
activities — including fisheries. This confusion is widespread and innocent.
Yet, there are also a few whose colossal ignorance leads them to dismiss the
country's massive farmers' suicides as trivial. For instance: "at least half
of the Indian workforce is engaged in farming. This fact points to a much
lower suicide rate per 100,000 individuals for farmers than in the general
population." Note how easily those 'engaged in farming' become 'farmers!'
As a notion it borders on the whacko. It goes: After all, 53 out of every
100 Indians are farmers. So our 270,940 farm suicides since 1995 are a low
number on a population base of over 600 million. So low that we should be
agitated over how the suicide rate in the general population can be brought
"down to the levels prevailing amongst farmers."
Never mind for now the appalling moral position that a quarter of a million
human beings taking their lives is hardly alarming. The Bhopal gas tragedy,
the worst industrial disaster in human terms, claimed over 20,000 lives. But
in this perverse logic, since that was less than 0.003 per cent of the then
population, it is rendered meaningless. That position says more about its
authors than about the suicides. It shows they are clueless about who a
farmer is — and about what the data show.
It shows even greater ignorance of who defines and counts a 'farmer
suicide.' The Census records cultivators. The police count suicides. The
police do not read the Census. Not for definitions, anyway.
The Census groups the population into workers and non-workers. The latter
would be infants, children, students, housewives, unemployed, aged and
retired people. Farmers, or cultivators come under 'Workers' — a huge
category covering many varied groups. Now rural workers account for close to
70 per cent of all workers. And rural workers consist of farmers,
agricultural labourers and non-farm workers.
Cultivators (main workers) in the Census are barely eight per cent of the
population as a whole. (That's after a two-decade secular decline in this
group). The ongoing farm suicides — 184,169 of them since 2001 according to
the National Crime Records Bureau — are taking place on a smaller and
shrinking base. Their intensity has hardly diminished. In most of the States
accounting for two-thirds of all farm suicides, the intensity has likely
Of course distress affects a much wider population dependent on agriculture.
(Farmer bankruptcies crush the village carpenter, and even play a role in
weaver suicides). The sufferings of others are as real. It is not as if the
agricultural labourer or non-farm worker is having a great time. Both
sections have seen distress migrations — and suicides. (For that matter the
owner of a small industrial unit in an urban city could be distress-hit).
Their suicides are no less tragic. But it is vital to know who officially
gets counted as a farmer. And who gets listed in the 'farmers' suicides. For
that tells us more about the ongoing tragedy and gives us a sense of its
Everybody who works in the film industry is not an actor. Everyone in the
educational system is not a student. And all those in the 53 per cent of the
population related to the farming sector are not farmers. Even among those
who are, only a limited group gets counted as such when police and
governments make farmers' suicide lists. Cultivators are counted by the
Census. Suicides are recorded by police stations across the country. The
numbers collated by State governments. Very different approaches are
The Census considers someone a cultivator if he or she operates a piece of
land — which they may or may not own; State governments and police count
only those with a title to land as farmers. The Census records two kinds of
cultivators: 'Main workers' and 'marginal workers.' The latter are more like
agricultural labourers or non-farm workers since farming is not their main
activity. A 'Main worker' in cultivation is someone for whom that is the
major occupation for at least half the year. That group makes barely eight
per cent of the population as a whole.
Suicides among the others in the agrarian world (within that "53 per cent")
won't be recorded as 'farmer suicides.' Try getting State governments and
their police to do that! Even within the 'recognised' eight per cent, those
whose title to land is not clear will not be listed as farmers' suicides,
should they take their own lives. For instance, women and tenant farmers are
routinely excluded. Even eldest sons running the farms — with the land still
in the names of their aged fathers — would also be omitted.
Police and State governments run the suicide lists, not the Census. Nor does
the NCRB, which has neither the vested interest nor the ability to fiddle
that data. It merely collates what the State Crime Record Bureaus submit to
it. Hence, the Chhattisgarh government could brazenly declare a 'zero farm
suicides' figure in 2011. That after the State saw over 7,500 of them (by
its own admission) between 2006-10. With all the fiddles in the data, the
numbers and intensity remain appalling.
Maharashtra revels in such fraud. With close to 54,000 since 1995, the State
has been the worst in farm suicides for over a decade. And even those
numbers conceal major exclusions. They've invented categories like 'Farmer's
relatives suicides,' or "non-genuine" suicides, in order to further trim the
numbers. So the State governments and their police, have immense power in
re-defining who a farmer is. Watch out for more and more States doing 'a
Chhattisgarh' and declaring 'zero' farm suicides in coming months and years.